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Introduction to Delta Pieces: Northeast Louisiana Folklife
Map: Cultural Micro-Regions of the Delta, Northeast Louisiana
The Louisiana Delta: Land of Rivers
Musings on the Louisiana Delta from a Native Son – H.F. Pete Gregory as told to Dayna Lee
Reflections on the Delta – Delta and the River – H.F. Pete Gregory
Reflections on the Delta – The French Delta – H.F. Pete Gregory
Reflections on the Delta – Places – H.F. Pete Gregory
Reflections on the Delta – An Owl Calls – H.F. Pete Gregory
Ouachita River Mounds: A Five Millennium Mystery – Lori Tucker
Noms de Bayou: French Place Names in North Louisiana – Kelby Ouchley
The Flood of 1927 and the Great Depression: Two Delta Disasters – Betty Jo Harris
Reflections on the Delta – The Delta is an Indian Place – H.F. Pete Gregory
Reflections on the Delta – Indian Mounds – H.F. Pete Gregory
Choctaw Heritage of Louisiana and Mississippi – Deborah Boykin
The Invisible Population: Mexicans and Central Americans in Northern and Central Louisiana – Lisa Abney
Italians in the Delta: "Pioneers of Monroe" – April Honaker
Delta Folks – Sausage Maker M. J. Varino – Stephanie Pierrotti with Susan Roach
The St. Joseph's Day Altar Tradition In Monroe – Stephanie Pierrotti and Madelyn Boudreaux
Delta Folks – Guy Serio: "They Had a Rough Go": Italians in the Delta – Madelyn Boudreaux
Delta Folks – Qin Lin: Chinese Paper Crafts – Susan Roach
Jewish Folklore in Northeastern Louisiana – Ben Sandmel
Working in the Delta
Working in the Delta – Susan Roach
Nets and Net Making in the Delta – Sheila Richmond
"Willing to Take A Risk": The Folklore of Cropdusting – Susan Roach and Janet Ryland
Big River Traditions: Folklife on the Mississippi – Ben Sandmel
Traditional Boats of Catahoula Lake – Dayna Bowker Lee
Reflections on the Delta – Traditional Boats in the Delta – H.F. Pete Gregory
The Rolling Store – John L. Doughty, Jr.
Delta Folks – Whitey Shockley: Mississippi River Fisherman – Susan Roach
Delta Folks – Oren Russell: Mississippi River Boat Pilot – Susan Roach
Homemaking in the Delta
Making a Home in the Delta: Women and the Domestic Environment – Deborah Boykin
Delta Folks – Jelly Maker Maye Torrey: "Berries In The Winter" – Sylvia Frantom
Delta Folks –Hazel Dailey: "To Make Something Each Day That I Am Here" – Sylvia Frantom
Reflections on the Delta – Christmas Customs – H.F. Pete Gregory
Worshiping in the Delta
"Like a River Flowing with Living Water": Worshiping in the Mississippi Delta – Joyce Marie Jackson
"Take Me to the Water": African American River Baptism – Annie Staten and Susan Roach
Delta Folks – Lucille Stewart: Making Baptismal Gowns – Susan Roach
"Everyone Rockin' Together": Continuity and Creativity in the Louisiana Delta Easter Rock – Susan Roach
Making Music in the Delta
At Play in the Delta, From Memphis to Natchez – Michael Luster
Delta Folks – Po' Henry and Tookie: Delta Blues Duo – Susan Roach
Brownie Ford: Lifelines of a Woods Cowboy – Nicholas R. Spitzer
Delta Folks – Performer and Songwriter Kenny Bill Stinson: "Mixing Country Music with the Blues" – Susan Roach
Delta Folks – Vidalia's One-Man Band, Gray Montgomery: "Several Different Musicians Rolled into One."– Ben Sandmel
Playing in the Delta
Reflections on the Delta – Hunting and Fishing: Delta Life– H.F. Pete Gregory
Reflections on the Delta – Gigging – H.F. Pete Gregory
Delta Folks – "Horns and Dogs Just Go Together": James LeCroix's Revival of the Hunting Horn Making – Marcy Frantom
Delta Folks – Moses Poole on Pen Hunting in Catahoula Parish: "You've Got to Know Your Dog's Mouth" – Marcy Frantom
Delta Folks – Blowing Horn Maker Nalda Gilmore: "The Horn Man" – Sylvia Frantom
Gambling Money Don't Have No Home: Playing Poker and Shooting Dice in the Louisiana Delta – Don W. Hatley
Reflections on the Delta – Night Clubs in the Delta – H.F. Pete Gregory
Telling Stories in the Delta
"The Big One": Deer Hunting in Northeast Louisiana – Janery Wylie
The Hub Lake Gold: An Analysis of A Legend – John L. Doughty, Jr.
Landmark of the Koroa – Sam Dickenson
Delta Archival Materials
"Take Me to the Water": African American River Baptism
By Annie Staten and Susan Roach
In the Louisiana Delta region, lying between the Ouachita and Mississippi Rivers, African American Baptists still occasionally perform their sacred ritual of outdoor baptisms in rivers, bayous, and lakes. As late as the 1950s, outdoor baptism was common in both black and white Protestant churches in rural North Louisiana. Even though the majority of urban and modernized rural churches have indoor baptismal pools, some African American urban, along with older churches without indoor facilities, have chosen to maintain the earlier, natural setting for this important rite of passage, a symbolic ritual purification and initiation.
One such pastor, Rev. L. D. Oliver, of the St. Paul Baptist Church in Monroe, has reminded many area younger ministers about their heritage of river baptism, following the Biblical example of Christ's baptism in the Jordan River by John the Baptist, and has urged them to preserve this tradition. Consequently, for the past three years, Rev. Oliver and Rev. Roosevelt Wright, pastor of the Tabernacle Baptist Church, have gathered their congregations together for river baptism. For many years, the river baptizing was held by Rev. Oliver about once every five years, in order to keep the river ritual alive in the memories of children, but interest in preserving the heritage appears to have strengthened the frequency of the performance.
Baptisms were generally held during the summer or early fall so the water would be warm enough. Outdoor baptismal locations tend to be used traditionally in a community, with various churches using the same spot for generations. Churches in Rayville and Alto still go to the Beouf River, and in Lake Providence, the selected lake spot is near the Soldier's Rest historical marker-the area where General Grant's Civil War Black Union troops camped during their attempt to dig a canal to the Mississippi. In Monroe, the Ouachita River at the foot of Pine Street has been used for several generations and called by older community members "the old burying ground," an apt name for the ritual of baptism in which the candidate is symbolically buried in Christ, where sins are washed away, and one is raised up to "walk in newness of life." Usually the outdoor baptism follows the African American Baptist churches' annual revivals, which in the past in the plantation churches lasted two weeks. After a first week of prayer meetings, the second week featured preaching by the pastor or guest minister whose goal was to draw sinners to God. Today the revivals may last only a week. But still today those who accept God become waiting candidates for baptism. African American baptism follows the ritual model developed by anthropologist Arnold Van Gennep, who outlined three stages of such rites: (1) separation, where the initiates are dressed in ritual dress and set apart from the rest of the group; (2) transition or liminal, where they are between states; and (3) incorporation, where they are integrated into the group.
In preparation for the baptism, the "Mothers of the Church" must make or otherwise obtain the traditional robes to fit each candidate, although some churches such as St. Joe and St. Luke Baptist Churches may not use robes for the candidates. The actual design of the long flowing cotton gowns with long sleeves may vary slightly with the community, but most of them are sewn on machines from handed-down, traditional patterns cut from newspaper. Monroe churches' gowns have two narrow, torn strips of fabric tied around the gown-one around the waist and another below the knees, which function to keep the robe in place over the legs. Some believe that these ties represent the bonds of sin, and that after baptism, their removal signifies the freedom from sin and rebirth. Also headgear may vary; in some groups such as those in Lake Providence, a full hat resembling a small chef's hat is worn instead of a wide band over the forehead. Just before the service begins, the mothers help the candidates put on the robes usually over old clothes. The baptismal candidates are lined up, youngest first, by the church mothers. Before the baptisms actually begin, one or more of the church deacons wade out into the water with stakes to poke the water bottom for a safe spot where the water is not too deep, nor the bottom too boggy or dangerous; usually about waist-deep on a man is considered to be safe. After the safe location has been determined, the deacons push the three stakes into the river bottom, forming a safe arc for the ritual. While some churches do not use three stakes, others such as the Monroe churches do, which according to Rev. Roosevelt Wright, Jr., symbolize the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
When the stakes are in place, and members of the church congregation have gathered in excitement on the bank to witness the baptizing of a loved one, the service begins with the deacons leading the devotional consisting of singing of Dr. Watts hymns, scripture reading, and prayer.
The candidates are led to the water by two deacons while the minister (or ministers, if more than one congregation) assisted by deacons wade into the water while the congregation sings. The minister begins his part of the ritual by giving the meaning of baptism. Rev. L. D. Oliver began his September 1994 sermon with the following remarks: "We gather here on this old river here that drifts into the sea, because we have come back here. Things may have changed uptown; banks may have gone out; shopping centers may have closed, but this old river just keep on. So we thought the church would come back here and tell the Lord, we thank Him for this old river." Often the minister will refer to Biblical scripture that directs their ritual; the third chapter of Matthew, which tells the story of John the Baptist is a favorite.
After the opening sermon, the candidates are then escorted to the minister one by one. The minister folds the candidate's hands in prayer, and covers the candidate's face. As he baptizes each one, the minister repeats a ritual statement, which may vary with ministers: "I baptize this little sister [or brother and gives name] in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost on the belief of their faith," or "In obedience to the command of God, I baptize [gives name] in the name of the Father, in the name of the Son, in the name of the Holy Ghost." The candidate is immersed in the water. As each candidate is brought up out of the water, the congregation applauds and sings refrains from favorite baptismal songs such as "Take me to the Water," "I know I've Got Religion," and Dr. Watts hymns and moans. The services are generally spirit-filled, with many of the congregation becoming overwhelmed, singing, shouting praises, and shedding tears of joy as they watch their children being baptized.
When the baptized come out of the water, they are gathered up into waiting arms and covered in large sheets and towels to protect them from the air and then whisked away to dress, often in white Sunday clothes, behind sheet curtains up the riverbank; then they are brought back to witness the remaining baptisms. Between candidates, the minister will frequently give a short sermon, and often after the last candidate, the minister may go into a longer sermon. If more than one minister is participating, they may take turns. The ceremony closes with all the ministers and deacons walking back to the water's edge, where they hold hands in a closing prayer. The service usually ends with joyful singing in celebration of the new converts.
Frequently, the baptism is followed by a gathering at the church building for fellowship, the final incorporation stage of the rite. Upon returning to the church, the converts may still wear a white bandanna or handkerchief on their heads until they are fellowshipped into the church. In the past, it was typical for the pastor to read the church covenant and explain it to them and then present them as full, pledged members of the church. The shaking of the candidates' hands begun by the pastor, then followed by the deacons and the congregation, symbolizes that they are indeed members of the church, and the head gear is removed. Today several churches offer the converts "new-member" classes, after which they are integrated into the congregation in the final incorporation phase of the ritual. The location of the baptism, indoors or outdoors, does not change the deep religious symbolism of the ritual through which the promise is made that the "righteous shall see God." Locked in the memories of many African Americans is their inspiring experience of river baptism. By continuing this ritual, churches are ensuring that future generations will have the opportunity to share that glorious memory.